How does Unesco choose World Heritage Sites?

At some point we have all read or heard that a certain site was declared by UNESCO as a "World Heritage Site", but what is this organization based on to make these selections? Unesco has a series of very strict criteria to base its decisions. We invite you to discover them.

When did Unesco arise?

On November 16, 1945, Unesco was founded, acronym of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. From the beginning its objective was to contribute to security and peace around the world through education, culture, science and communications.

Unesco's roots date back to the end of World War II, when the allied countries begin to structure the way to restore the education system after the end of the war. Of the forty-four countries that meet, thirty-seven decide to found Unesco.

Temple of Hera, Greece - canadastock

The UNESCO seeks to boost the development of peoples through the preservation of their natural resources and cultural values. Through cultural activities creativity is stimulated, as well as the preservation of natural and historical spaces. In this way the peace and security of the people is encouraged.

"Conservation is a state of harmony between man and earth."

-Aldo Leopold-

On what criteria is Unesco based to designate protected assets?

Until the end of 2004 there was a group of four criteria in the natural field and six criteria in the cultural field. However, in 2005 these ten criteria were unified into a single group, in which the first six are related to cultural heritage and the remaining four to natural.

Petra, Jordan - Pocholo Calapre

For a given place to be included in this prestigious list, it must have an “exceptional universal value”, so you must meet at least one of the following selection criteria set by Unesco in "World Heritage: The Criteria for Selection":

Cultural criteria

1. Represent a masterpiece of human creative genius.

2. Witness an important exchange of human values over a period of time or within a cultural area of ​​the world, in the development of architecture, technology, monumental arts, urban planning or landscape design.

3. Provide a unique or at least exceptional testimony of a cultural tradition or from an existing or already disappeared civilization.

Machu Picchu, Peru - Byelikova Oksana

4. Offer an eminent example of a type of building, architectural, technological or landscape complex that illustrates a significant stage in human history.

5. Be an eminent example of a human settlement tradition, use of the sea or land, which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or of human interaction with the environment, especially when it becomes vulnerable to the impact of irreversible changes.

Easter Island, Chile - Anton_Ivanov

6. Be directly or tangibly associated with living events or traditions, with ideas or beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance.

Natural criteria

7. Contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance.

8. Be a representative example of important stages of history of the earth, including testimonies of life, geological processes that create geological forms or significant geomorphic or physiographic characteristics.

9. Be one of the eminent examples of ecological processes and biological in the course of ecosystem evolution.

Angel Falls, Venezuela - Alice Nerr

10. Contain the most representative and most important natural habitats for biodiversity conservation, including those that contain endangered species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science and conservation.

Some Unesco statistics

According to the latest statistics, Unesco has declared 1,031 sites around the world as a World Heritage Site. Of these, 802 are cultural, 197 are natural and 31 are mixed.

Pyramids of Egypt - Volodymyr Martyniuk

Some of these sites have been placed in the category of "World Heritage in danger". The majority are in Syria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The countries that have more sites declared as World Heritage They are: Italy, China, Spain, France, Germany, Mexico and India.

For a given natural or cultural space to be included as a World Heritage Site, it must meet at least one of Unesco's criteria. Further, The candidate place must submit a detailed project explaining the reasons for aspiring. Did you know the precepts on which Unesco relies to designate World Heritage sites?

Video: UNESCO World Heritage Site, How a place gets selected for Heritage Site? UNESCO parameters explained (February 2020).

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